Music for Social Change: Research in Practice with Kidznotes and El Sistema USA (2018-2019)


El Sistema is an evidence-based system of music education for social change. Founded in Venezuela in 1975, El Sistema and its worldwide replications create an environment of opportunity through the collective practice of ensemble-based instruction as a model for personal, social, academic and musical development. Through eliminating barriers for students who experience them at the highest levels, these programs work alongside students, families and community partners to provide access to the benefits of high-quality music education.

This movement is present in the U.S. and locally within the Research Triangle of North Carolina. El Sistema USA (ESUSA), the national alliance of programs inspired by El Sistema, has over 110 member organizations in 34 states. Kidznotes, an El Sistema-inspired program launched in 2010 in East Durham, serves 500 students annually in grades K-10 throughout Durham and Southeast Raleigh.

Project Description

This Bass Connections project will focus on facilitating research capacities and building research among ESUSA programs, including deepened engagement with local programs. The project team has two related objectives:

  • Conduct applied evaluation research with Kidznotes, with a primary focus on understanding effects on parents and a secondary focus on understanding effects on youth participants
  • Build the research and evaluation capacities of other ESUSA members through sharing of processes implemented with Kidznotes, with a focus on research and evaluation related to parents and families.

For the first objective, Kidznotes will serve as the focal implementation site for research and evaluation efforts. The team will participate in implementing data collection processes for assessing the impact of Kidznotes programming for parents, as well as parent reporting on their children’s Kidznotes-based outcomes. Effect on parents is an essential but understudied aspect of El Sistema programming, given the community and family perspective of El Sistema and the embeddedness of youth within families. Parent reporting on youth outcomes is a meaningful and often-utilized form of understanding programs’ effect on children, and it is currently missing from an existing Duke/Kidznotes study of youth outcomes.

For the second objective, ESUSA will lead the team in building the capacity of ESUSA member programs in research and evaluation, with a focus on impact for parents and families. The team will make parent data collection instruments used at Kidznotes available to select other El Sistema program sites, and will work to develop mechanisms for sharing research and building research capacity for ESUSA programs across the U.S.

Anticipated Outcomes

Improved understanding of changes in parent behavior, knowledge and attitudes as a result of their children’s engagement in ESUSA member programs; mechanisms to highlight research and share best practices in ending educational inequality for low-income students through the framework of El Sistema-inspired programs


Summer 2018 – Spring 2019

  • Summer 2018: Graduate student (undergraduates not involved at this point) prepares pre-program parent survey for implementation (content development, data collection planning, programming), develops planning for scaling research nationally by making pre-program parent data collection process available to other interested ESUSA member programs
  • Fall 2018: Parent-level data collection: Implement data collection instrument, analyze pre-program results, share results with Kidznotes and other ESUSA sites electing to participate in parent pre-program data collection; Youth-level data collection: implement youth pre-program data at Kidznotes, analyze pre-program results
  • Spring 2019: Parent-level data collection: prepare and implement post-program parent survey; develop statistical syntax for parent survey pre/post program analysis; Youth-level data collection: collect Kidznotes youth-level post-program data

Team Outcomes to Date

Music for Social Change: Research in Practice with Kidznotes and El Sistema USA (poster by Paula Ajumobi, Dayna Price, Jacob Rubin, presented at EHDx, Duke University, April 9, 2019 and at Bass Connections Showcase, Duke University, April 17, 2019)

Youth, Music and Social Change (talk by Jacob Rubin, EHDx, Duke University, April 9, 2019)

This Team in the News

Team Seeks to Serve Music Education Activists Where They Live

Making Music Matter

Rappeling for a Reason

See related teams, Youth, Music and Social Change: Building the Evidence Base with Kidznotes and El Sistema USA (2019-2020) and El Sistema USA and Duke: Advancing the Power of Music for Human Development (2017-2018).

El Sistema students playing music

Team Leaders

  • Megan Gray, Social Science Research Institute
  • Jessica Sperling Smokoski, Social Science Research Institute
  • Kathryn Wyatt, Arts & Sciences-Music

/graduate Team Members

  • Jee Young Kim, Psychology-PHD, Psychology-AM

/undergraduate Team Members

  • Paula Ajumobi, Int Comparative Studies (AB), Spanish (AB2)
  • Catherine Cho, Political Science (AB), Philosophy (AB2)
  • Dayna Price, Psychology (AB)
  • Jacob Rubin, Computer Science (AB)

/yfaculty/staff Team Members

  • Victoria Lee, Social Science Research Institute
  • Scott Lindroth, Arts & Sciences-Music
  • Menna Mburi, Social Science Research Institute
  • Lorrie Schmid, Social Science Research Institute

/zcommunity Team Members

  • Mariah Cowell, Graduate Student, UNC-Chapel Hill
  • Nick Malinowski, Kidznotes
  • Josh deVries, El Sistema USA