Consumer EEG Devices: Attention, Emotion, Privacy and the Brain (2019-2020)
What if you could control the world around you with your thoughts and a simple, portable device? Emotiv, Neurosky and Interaxon are just some of the companies that manufacture portable consumer-based headsets that claim to do just that. These headsets sense the electrical activity inside a person’s brain using a technique known as electroencephalography, or EEG.
Consumer-based EEG devices, which are marketed and sold to consumers for tracking and improving their brain activity through neurofeedback, prompt unique privacy and data-sharing concerns because of their unprecedented ability to gather and decode real-time brain activity in everyday contexts such as education, employment, gaming and fitness. These devices are currently being used by the military, sports teams and industry as well as by countries like China and Chile, which are monitoring attention, distraction and cognitive load by professionals in industries such as high-speed train and truck driving.
Additional research is necessary to create a broader understanding of the privacy concerns and attitudes in users and nonusers associated with consumer EEG devices.
This Bass Connections project team will build on the research conducted by the 2018-2019 team to tackle questions relating to privacy and analytic validity of consumer-based EEG devices.
Team members will construct and administer surveys to the general population to gain a nuanced perspective of the views on privacy of brain data across contexts. Ethical, legal and policy questions to be addressed include:
- What are the contextual privacy norms associated with the aggregation of brain analytics by different organizations (e.g., government agencies, insurance companies, social media companies, for-profit companies)?
- Are there differences in individuals’ perceptions of brain privacy depending on the amount of experience they have with EEG or other brain data?
- Do expectations of privacy with respect to brain data reflect a lack of understanding of or belief in the capabilities of brain decoding?
- What are the policy implications of consumer attitudes toward privacy?
Team members will also design and implement a validity study to consider questions such as:
- Can consumer EEG devices measure different types of emotions such as positive, neutral or negative emotions?
- Are there more specific emotions that can be validly measured with these devices?
- How does context impact attention and emotions that are being measured (e.g., individuals in a group listening to a speaker versus one-on-one listening to a speaker)?
- Can outcomes be validated in different settings (e.g., do the speaker/listener situations set out during the 2018-2019 project apply to other settings like a speaker/listener in a classroom setting or a theatrical production)?
Manuscripts for publication; oral and poster presentations at annual meeting of International Neuroethics Society as well as other venues
Ideally, this team will include 8-10 students, including 2 advanced graduate students, 1-2 new graduate students and 6-8 undergraduates at different stages of their academic career.
Students will come from a variety of disciplines, but at least some students will have a background in computer science/programming, neuroscience, EEG and/or public policy. Applicants should also have an interest in privacy studies.
Graduate students should have a background in a research field that conducts studies on human subjects. Undergraduates need not have research experience; however, a background and interest in neuroscience would be helpful, as well as rudimentary knowledge with the research process and some form of statistical training.
Students will be engaged in all aspects of the project, including the development of manuscripts and presentations. Graduate students will take on a leadership role, overseeing the undergraduates and providing valuable mentorship about the research process.
Team members will learn to identify and explain current concerns regarding brain data privacy and privacy frameworks more generally, apply this knowledge by creating and implementing a valuable survey tool, analyze and evaluate survey responses and synthesize collected data for multiple audiences.
Selected students will have the opportunity to travel to the International Neuroethics Society Annual Meeting and other conferences to present their work.
Participation during the summer portion of the project is optional.
Summer 2019 – Spring 2020
- Summer 2019 (Optional): Review and update the survey methodology previously used
- Fall 2019: Refine and submit IRB; run surveys and EEG studies
- Spring 2020: Collect and analyze data; develop manuscripts
Independent study credit available for fall and spring semesters; summer funding available
See earlier related team, Consumer EEG, Mental and Emotional States, Privacy and the Brain (2018-2019).
Image: EEG device Brainco, by tomemrich, licensed under CC BY 2.0
/faculty/staff Team Members
Nita Farahany, Duke Law|Arts & Sciences-Philosophy*
William Krenzer, Science & Society*
Guillermo Sapiro, Pratt School of Engineering-Electrical & Computer Engineering*
/zcommunity Team Members