Decoded Neurofeedback Toward Bias and Racism Mitigation (2022-2023)

Racism is a complex issue fueled by generations of social, cultural and systemic norms. Racial prejudice — the tendency to discriminate against individuals of different races based on preconceived opinions — hinders access to healthcare, dampens educational outcomes, prevents fair economic opportunities and fuels employment inequality. Given racism’s destructive impact on minority groups, it is essential to devise effective methods to reduce implicit bias on both neural and behavioral levels.

A joint effort between Duke and Duke Kunshan University, this team built on the work of the 2021-2022 team to develop a decoded neurofeedback protocol and consolidate a comprehensive literature review on racial bias and neurofeedback. The team divided into three subteams:

  1. The Behavior Task Design and Testing subteam focused on designing and refining the behavioral paradigm for the project. They developed a comprehensive set of tasks and experimental procedures, ensuring the validity and reliability of their research. Their efforts resulted in the successful finalization of the behavioral paradigm.
  2. The Literature Review subteam conducted an extensive review of relevant research papers and scholarly articles to consolidate existing literature on the subject matter. They synthesized key findings, identified gaps in knowledge and provided a strong theoretical framework for the project.
  3. The Toolbox Testing subteam focused on evaluating and testing the neurofeedback toolbox for the project. They optimized the parameters of the Decoded Neural Feedback (DNF) system, organized workshops and provided training to enable researchers to effectively utilize the toolbox in their experiments.


Summer 2022 – Spring 2023

Team Outputs

Behavioral paradigm, including tasks and experimental procedures

Literature review

Neurofeedback toolbox

See earlier related team, Decoded Neurofeedback Toward Bias and Racism Mitigation (2021-2022).


Image: Duke Kunshan University in March 2016, by Chris Hildreth

Duke Kunshan University.

Team Leaders

  • Jing Cai, Duke Kunshan University
  • Yudian Cai, Duke Kunshan University
  • Sze chai Kwok, Duke Kunshan University
  • James Moody, Arts & Sciences-Sociology

/graduate Team Members

  • Joseph Quinn, Sociology-PHD, Sociology-PHD

/undergraduate Team Members

  • Jenny Green, Electrical & Computer Egr(BSE)
  • Chenjun Ji, DKU Interdisciplinary Studies (BS)
  • Yiyang Liu, DKU Interdisciplinary Studies (BS)
  • Victoria Midkiff, Computer Science (BS)
  • Kavya Ramamurthy, Biology (BS)
  • Olivia Shamberger, Neuroscience (BS)
  • Aleksandra Stryjska, DKU Interdisciplinary Studies (BS)
  • Kidest Wolde, Philosophy (AB)
  • Anqi Xie, Neuroscience (BS)
  • Jiayi Xu, Neuroscience (BS)
  • Ruochen Zhang, DKU Interdisciplinary Studies (BS)

/zcommunity Team Members

  • Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance
  • Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International